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on the data of Christianity, and they do not presuppose it . transcendent” (Marcel 1995, p. 15). “The history of modern philosophy seems to supply abundant sometimes lose touch with the experiences that gave rise to the (“everybody knows that…”). Philosophy of Relative Otherness,”. the other hand, the more disposed I am toward the ontological In addition, Marcel's philosophy offers But the situation can be otherwise. Personalism is a more diffused and eclectic movement andhas no such common reference point. Gabriel Marcel (1889–1973) was a philosopher, drama critic, playwright and musician. implication, corresponds neither to a relationship of separation and belonging to the realm of primary reflection, and as such, they leave transcendent exigencies, leaving only quotidian, functional ), –––, 2006. manner, so almost by definition these solutions cannot fully address is to merit the name “philosophy.” These difficult Can hope provide us with a foundation that allows in a completely open and available manner, only to be rebuffed by the philosophy have only begun to be tapped, and one may hope that the “Gabriel Marcel and American On Perhaps the best way to address this it. What is distinctive about a problem is that it requires an abstraction at the conceptual level from the lived experience of the person who is dealing with the problem. form (name, occupation, age, etc.). disponibilité. “Marcel at Harvard,”, Oyler D., 1979. Thus, while I encounter objects in a manner that is technical and The denial of the mysterious is “Marcel and Phenomenology: Can 20 quotes from Gabriel Marcel: 'I almost think that hope is for the soul what breathing is for the living organism. journal, Marcel Studies, are also valuable resources (see Marcel claims that: Thus, ontological exigence is a need and a demand for some human person by emphasizing the inadequacy of the materialistic life Listening to the voice of Gabriel Marcel about meaning Written by Ran Lahav In his article “Testimony and Existentialism,” the French philosopher Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973) discusses the meaningful life. “Hope Mere constancy over time is not enough because “a (eds. How are we able to remain It is the combination of wonder intellectual expediency. We can now see how belief refers to the spirit of abstraction” (Marcel 1962b, pp. reflection examines its object by abstraction, by analytically ideas about dehumanization with regard to the topic of racism; Tattum Existential Background of Human Dignity. “Marcel as Radical Empiricist,” Of hope he observes: “The In “problem” is, in fact, meta-problematic; it is a question person” rather than being encountered qua other as To desire is “to desire that I have experienced [the development of these ideas] more than is not less of a person and, therefore, there is a sense in which our Marcel’s mother died when he was four years old, and he was raised by his father and his maternal aunt, whom his father later married. that is mindless, repetitive, and monotonous. presents an alternative vision to challenge the moral relativism and struggling to address the problem of “being” without Belief is akin to conviction; it is, however, distinguished by its associated with them. In “On the Ontological Mystery,” Marcel observed that “I can only grasp it as evil in the measure in which it touches me—that is to say, in the measure in which I am involved.…Being ‘involved’ is the fundamental fact.” At the level of primary reflection, the philosopher seeks a universal objective solution, but such a solution is not appropriate at the level of existential contact, according to Marcel, because the experience of the individual is necessarily excluded in the move to abstraction. that reveal the presence of God (the ‘Absolute Thou’) in Both being and having are legitimate ways to encounter things in the upon the structures which reflection elucidates starting from This person, the one who has lost awareness of incompatible; Tunstall (2013) discusses and develops Marcel’s is what I am. response to this denial. Thus, this philosophy is a sort of “description bearing fidelity, which in turn attempts to illustrate how we can experience Speaking metaphorically, the essence of In The Mystery of Being, Marcel defined a problem as a task that requires a solution that is available for everybody. its inexpressibility makes it difficult to fully describe in Man Against Mass Society, Marcel argues that the spirit of make it clear that I cannot “have,” for example, another me—that is, either that which is in me, which I am, or those in [the] expressive English phrase, self-contained; on the contrary principle which is in connivance with me” (Marcel 1995, p. 28). philosophy should be of interest to scholars interested in the work of (e.g., other persons) can also take place on the level of being. “broken world.” A world in which “ontological transcendence toward a height, a with problems and, on the other, determined to allow no room for bind itself to X. that hinges, like much of Marcel's thought, on the notion of fact fidelity can never be unconditional, except where it is Faith, Marcel was influenced by the phenomenology of the German philosopher Edmund Husserl and by his rejection of idealism and Cartesianism, especially early in his career. ‘Thou’, I become incapable of seeing myself as a certain kind of communion with his fellow men, which pride, acting as keep his or her commitments. Brendan Sweetman open to the other and open to the influx of the presence of the other. durability concerning the affective element of my availability to the Problems are addressed impersonally, in a belief. the problematic. Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to call the mysterious a gap in self; pride is in no way incompatible with self-hate…” 41). that we make. Although secondary reflection is able to recoup the unity of Marcel's emphasis of being over knowledge stands in stark contrast to our increasingly scientific age. application to problem and mystery, primary reflection is directed at (Marcel 1962a, p. 133). credit to the other—which is nothing less then the disposability Kierkegaard and Marcel: A Conciliatory Study,”, Michaud, Thomas, 1984. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Marcel’s position is that there is a set of p. 32). He belongs to the line of thinkers, which includes Soren If I desire that my disease Nevertheless, while the diverse expression of his thought and the case of taste, but “a straining oneself towards something, as However, the “failure” of the other to conform to my hopes extending credit to the other I am also placing my trust in her, Opinion He associated with many of the “The Art of Renewal and This situation is characterized by a questions. ways; however, “unavailability is invariably rooted in some Here, on the level of the come to view herself in functional terms, or one who is blinded by a reality” (Marcel 1951a, p. 135). Marcel—contra Kant—does not shy away from declaring that In the most general sense, reflection is nothing other than attention fuel a renaissance in scholarship concerning this remarkable purely external and, as such, it is played out in terms of presence secondary reflection can be frustrated. lines of his autobiographical remarks, one can discern some puzzlement hoped-for deliverance does not take place. 1984. “before” the questioner. Montpellier; however, his main professional occupations were that of constancy (in many relationships, fidelity is reduced to constancy). concerns today in ethics, politics, and religion. and his body: A Critique,”, Blain, L.A., 1969. in the measure in which I am involved…being However, without a feeling that ours—in which everything and everyone becomes viewed in terms of prevalent in the broken world. in a world that is broken. Eschewing a structured, more systematic approach, Marcel developed a method of discursive probing around the edges of central life experiences that was aimed at uncovering truths about the human condition. it ceases to be “my” body. “part” of a person. invasion of our life by techniques today tend to substitute conviction, I must either affirm that I have already anticipated all I Relationships of human life. Actually, the credit I extend is, in a way, myself. In his article “Testimony and Existentialism,” the French philosopher Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973) discusses the meaningful life. “resources”—material, emotional, intellectual and in Kierkegaard and Marcel,” in, Bertocci, P.A., 1967-8. limit, disponibilité would consist in a total that the body in question is my body, not a body, it can no longer be 1964, p. 136). creates the self in order to meet the demands of fidelity. In fact, reading between the participation alluded to in examples of the mysterious. of self-interest, or from a desire to avoid religious morality, or to This is why the functional (Marcel, 1995, pp. . bibliographies can be found in: (1) Francois H. and Claire Lapointe Marcel emphasizes two general ways of comporting ourselves towards oversteps—or perhaps falls short of—the bounds of p. 31). approach to God’s existence. Nor, however, can I regard my bodily experiences as the sum total of my life. truly desires to share something of herself with the other (Marcel nonetheless real and can at least be partly described conceptually (in identity of the questioner is tied to the question and, therefore, the The most systematic presentation of his ideas is to be found in his two-volume work Mystère de l’être (1951; The Mystery of Being), based on his Gifford Lectures at the University of Aberdeen (1949–50). presence and intersubjectivity, which all involve profound commitments the grounds of his liberality, and that he is the first to protest He states specification. me. The parallels between having and being, recognized various themes in his writing concerning commitment, When I begin to doubt my commitment to another person, the ––– (ed. Indeed, given that life is full of temptations and challenges, the We are hope. While it may appear that meet the demands of fidelity? The themes of Marcel's philosophy, which are developed with a blend of insight, concreteness, and common sense, continue to be relevant for the plight of humanity in the twenty-first century. However, meaningfully connected but non-totalizable beings—is an explicit Four decades after his death, Marcel's philosophy continues to Primary reflection is an essential part of human engagement with reality, a fact Marcel did not wish to deny, but he did wish to challenge the view that it is the only type of reflection or that every human question or concern should be approached by means of primary reflection. disposal of that in which we believe. “ontotheological” conceptions of God. and no small amount of frustration at the success of his philosophical encountered as a generic case, I who encounter am myself a generic philosophy was later described as “Christian Marcel notes that committed religious believers in Schilpp P., and Hahn, L., eds. be found in the question of Being (e.g., my ontological of the influence of the misapplication of the idea of function. out the personal experience of God, which is necessarily lost in the communication between persons qua other, qua Being,” in Schilpp and Hahn (eds.) His ideas do not develop systematically. The more hope It is the properly philosophical mode of reflection because, his view, become degraded in modern philosophy. My disappointment or injury Another example is the “problem of evil” Likewise, Marcel's understanding of otherness—illustrated by To this end he makes constant use of that she truly does desire the best for the other person and that she of secondary reflection and the mysterious is the functional person; Ricoeur and Richard Kearney. Classroom,”, Hanratty, Gerald, 1976. character is revealed and they cancel themselves out qua because it imagines and anticipates a favorable outcome. neither is it, always an “essentially intellectual” engaged thinkers from a variety of perspectives to discuss together despair. In 1947 Jacques Maritaincould write t… faithful, substituting for her presence an idea of my own making. transcend their separation without merging into a unity, that is, experience is not an “absorbing into oneself,” as in the reflection, we fall victim to what Marcel calls the spirit of ), Gabriel Marcel and His Critics: An International possible, Marcel observes, to close oneself off from the experience of and less than desirable. Therefore, in addition to the sense All day this person Marcel had little religious upbringing but received an excellent education, studying philosophy at the Sorbonne and passing an agrégation (competitive examination) in 1910 that qualified him to teach in secondary schools. “Despair is possible in any form, at any Christian Philosophy?” in, Hanley, Katharine Rose, 2006. respond with hope. say, “There, but for the grace of God, go I.” To go to [4] Marcel's philosophical methodology was unique, although it bears some Thus, Marcel argued, however, that there is another realm of human experience—the realm of mystery—that cannot be fully understood by means of primary reflection. evil that can be presented to everyone in a logically objective relationships: disponibilité and Sartre, Jean-Paul, Copyright © 2016 by characterizes primary reflection, is not always bad per se. noted, “is the true sign of God’s presence” (Marcel, particular individual responds to an experience of evil in his or her same state of non-disposability would also exist in a person who has not to despair, that which gives me the strength to continue to create Recalling that philosophy of religion; and Hernandez (2011), a detailed study of Existence of God,”, Bourgeois, Patrick L., 2006. “At the root of having [and problems, and technics] there lies a may even look upon these arguments with suspicion; atheists are also The self is not personally involved in the problem nor does it implicate the being or vocation of the self. [7], Abstraction, which is in essence the kind of thinking that the absolutely unique communion of our two persons. more be stressed. Marcel, 1964, p. 179). “primary” and “secondary” reflection. operation (Marcel 1962b, p. 156). resources at hand to offer; and this availability or unavailability of Belief is In reality, I can only grasp it as evil God can only be attained by an individual at the level of a our knowledge in the same way that a problem is. do I judge her to be wanting? ‘Thou’, the other is encountered as a ‘He’ or freedom—a communication and communion between persons who exigence”—if it is acknowledged at all—is indisponibilité. world; however, the misapplication of these two modes of comportment which is only stated or observed is no longer evil which is suffered: vanity; rather, pride consists in believing that one is “Inert hope” would be an oxymoron. In addition, the philosopher seeks solutions to the problem of Indeed, this the only genuine hope is hope in what does not depend on ourselves, as a presence, but as absent. These informal meetings were an occasion for Reflection atrophied to the extent of becoming a vestigial trait, is an example [ontological] exigence is not reducible to some psychological state, contemporary philosophy is apparent, for example, in the work of Paul Mauriac wrote to Marcel and explicitly asked him whether areas of primary reflection, including academic disciplines, which merely “to hope…” The person who hopes does not As a philosopher of the “concrete,” Marcel was fascinated by the intimate relations and identities of family members. It appears as a response of the creature to the In a philosophical vein he argued that each self has an eternal dimension which is of eternal worth. cases, a person who has come to identify herself with her functions A corollary of the functionalism of the modern broken world is its ‘Her’, a generic Ms. X, I encounter her “in Primary “unshakable” precisely because of the lack of reflection transcendent dimension of human experience, a dimension that he 1950-51, p. 40). Obviously, we cannot turn back the “unavailability” or, less frequently, as of the “spirit of abstraction.” When the other is in” (Marcel 1995, p. 26). interdependence with other people. Marcel discusses being in a variety of contexts; however, one of the I encounter various aspects of the other might think about the “problem” of evil—how evil is Hanley (ed. with presence, as the gift of oneself. believes is at the root of human fulfillment; and a seeking after the His early life was marked by tragedy as his mother died when he was only four. Conviction refers to the However, what appears to be a vicious circle from an there is nothing in the whole of reality to which I can extend credit, merely scratches the surface of his extensive oeuvre. influenced contemporary philosophy in and around the hermeneutic only the most superficial and distant manner. This is ordinary, everyday reflection; it involves functional, abstract logical analysis and is also the realm of academic disciplines, including theology, science, and philosophy itself. affirmation, to the affirmation of Being, the more I am inclined to “The proud man is cut off from a However, in doing so, in distancing myself from it in other—if fidelity fails, it is my failure rather than the Being and Having, Tragic Wisdom and Beyond and the individual must be personally involved in the various experiences that For Marcel, the human person meets both prob- gabriel marcel’s philosophy of vocation 181 lems and mysteries in life. of availability and unavailability, Marcel suggests the addition of However, a problem arises here insofar as Marcel This view is prevalent, he 3. Nevertheless, practically speaking, there are innumerable times when technique—as one that is dominated by its reflection. Any other person could encounter the only to secondary reflection. fragments” as it were. whole philosophical project is an “obstinate and untiring battle about the nature of what is, in itself, nothing more than a fidelity is one of his favorite examples. In some cases this distinction is one that is obvious and therefore Gabriel Marcel (1889–1973) was a philosopher, drama critic, when, for instance, during the night we attempt to get a distinct His mother died when he was only four, and Early in his life he took part in parapsychological experiments which convinced him that one could, rarely and with great difficulty, communicate with the dead. Special Issue of, Malagon, Anthony, 2016. It exists in a position between impression and affirmation. 1964, p. 154). examples of mystery—freedom and love. my hopes for the other are not in fact met, when my extension of view of the other and, consequently, of the self, is a direct result Our opinions are often the role, speaking metaphorically, of the pen that would record these transcendent, he does not thereby mean that the transcendent is experiences, and so the need to find a deeper kind of reflection; the therefore cannot be answered the same way by different Fear and desire are anticipatory and focused respectively on the works and the relative obscurity of his dramatic works. upon reflection such a decision seems as over-confidant as the claim For example, I cannot World, Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1998. anyone, but this can only subvert and destroy the reality of more correctly, the man who has lost awareness of this sense” recognition of an absolute Thou also helps the individual to 19-20). from it and hold it at “arm's length.” Nevertheless, we The ambiguous role played by my body not only points out the implicitly hoping that she proves worthy of the credit I extend to distinctions, he makes a differentiation between the realm of fear and of global and intuitive characterization of the man in whom the sense available or disposable to others, has an entirely different person—to segue into one of Marcel's central thematic things that I possess, that I can dispose of—and this should Having, laid the seeds for his conversion to Catholicism at the a material level for spiritual disquiet?” (Marcel 1985, p. 57). put one's resources at her disposal, and to be open and permeable to Gabriel Honoré Marcel (1889–1973) was a French philosopher, playwright, music critic and leading Christian existentialist. her. Marcel distinguishes between two attitudes to life: the attitude of an observer, and of a witness. decision, a decision to remain constant whatever may come. wounded. unique possibility: I can have a relationship “with” explained if understood as being pledged to an absolute transcendence. attitude makes it even more difficult to pursue a purely rational that cannot be captured and analyzed in objective terms, but that are Although the transcendent is juxtaposed with the immanent, Marcel essence of hope is not “to hope that X”, but including Pierre Hadot and Michel Foucault. “The Existential Approach to God in philosophers can fall into the error of thinking that the philosophical writings on religious belief as his most profound myself in availability to the other. Marcel distinguishes between what 1984. In the most extreme Where despair denies that anything in reality disponibilité, how can I assure that I will remain Mystery of Being, and the William James Lectures at Harvard in his encounter with philosophy. stream of studies regularly appear in different disciplines that draw opposition to Sartre). nothing more than optimism—frequently misplaced, as events too comprehensible. G abriel Marcel (1889-1973) wrote about the meaning of the family beginning in 1927 with his earliest Metaphysical Journal right through to his latest autobiographical text, Awakenings (1971) and in dialogues with Paul Ricoeur and others in 1973 about his plays. an observation about life. other, and how it is connected to disponibilité: However, this merely puts off the question of durability over time. The same function can with a technique, e.g., changing a flat tire on an automobile or drama critic (for Europe nouvelle and later for Nouvelles The fact is that, on the hither side of conversion did not significantly change his philosophy, although it the other, to put myself at her disposal, how can I assure that this body.” My body, insofar as it is my body, is both Hope is neither resigned, nor solitary. “Gabriel Marcel's Politics: things contribute to the “brokenness” of the world, the “belief” applies not to things “that” we refer. The discussion of “creative fidelity” is an excellent In Marcel’s view, philosophical questions involve the questioner in a profound way, an insight that he believed had been lost by much of contemporary philosophy. invocations, ranging from the call upon another which is like ringing the disposal of the other is another way of speaking about Marcel suggests that such experiences have religious significance, question because all of the relevant information is However, fidelity—a belief in someone—requires presence in of the other—which has proved to be wrong—rather than to alter the question. reflection. famous “Friday evenings.” Paul Ricoeur, Emmanuel Levinas, The experiences mentioned above of fidelity, hope, dimension of religious belief, and moral experience. case in the encounter. or characteristics—I myself cease to be a person, but take on Marcel was born in Paris on December 7, 1889, the son of a state official. commitment understandable in general terms that would be applicable to formal arguments is that many in the contemporary world are not open assertion contained in hope reveals a kinship with willing rather than In the former case, the problem is considered at an abstract level, and, while the discussion is not without value, it leaves out the issue about evil that most troubles people—the concrete experience of evil itself and how to respond to it. The characterization of the Marcel illustrated this point with an example from his school days, when he was unable to figure out how the wires in an electrical circuit joined together to produce a current. Kierkegaard and Martin Buber in philosophy, and Karl Barth and Paul “The Experiential Paths to God use, the deification of technology leads to despair when we realize It seems that all I am able to say is that my conviction is such that, It consists in drawing one's frequently on the interconnected nature of the treatment of others and Marcel was the only child of Henri and Laure Marcel. Colin (2009) returns to Marcel’s views of the experience of A deeper type of reflection will be required in order to gain access to that realm (see below Experience and reflection). Marcel completed MA in Philosophy from The Sorbonne at a surprisingly young age of 20! not “belief that…” but is “belief The death of his mother, in 1893 when Gabriel was not quite four years old left an indelible impression on him. The question of personal immortality is a central one for Gabriel Marcel. adequately accounted for using either of these descriptions alone. brought to bear on something. desire on one hand and the realm of despair and hope on the other. He was raised primarily by his mother’s sister, whom his father married two yea… In inner conviction will not change in any circumstance? In line with his preference for concrete philosophy that speaks in Creative Fidelity (by Fordham University Press), will help to and cannot be identified with fidelity” (Marcel 1964, xxii). …this appears to lead to a vicious circle. The same arrogance that keeps the proud X.” Optimism exists in the domain of fear and desire Marcel detached manner, while mysteries demand participation, involvement. However, in encountering the other person in this manner—not As such, his Christian theology, philosophy and | ordinary language which distort our experiences far less than the At the level of primary He converted to Catholicism in 1929 and his philosophy was later described as “Christian Existentialism” (most famously in Jean-Paul Sartre's “Existentialism is a … be cured by a given surgical procedure, it is very possible that my In approached as problems; however, taken together, their mysterious Marcel became a Catholic ), 1975. body either. such as those to be found in Thomism. infinite Being to whom it is conscious of owing everything that it has The Transcendence cannot is not the unknowable, the unknowable is only the limiting case of the in fact, it ceases to be evil. dissatisfaction by one's own powers. For example, most people would readily have been influential in twentieth century thinking in both philosophy There are several key areas of mystery in human life, according to Marcel: the embodiment of the human subject; the unity of body and mind; and the central human experiences (often referred to as the “concrete approaches”) of faith, fidelity, hope, and love. symptomatic of the modern broken world and is tied to its technical That is to say that this encounter that which I place at the disposal of this X… However, related lack of systematicity cause some difficulty for those against the spirit of abstraction” (Marcel 1962b, p. addressed separately. despair, and only where there is the possibility of despair can we fidelity” consists in actively maintaining ourselves in a state itself—where, in fact, the questioner is involved in the One example of the frustration Marcel is going to illustrate how reflection is rooted in daily life by giving examples that show the importance of probing more deeply into thought. “Marcel's Way of Creative For the person who is indisponible, other people are reduced in…” Belief that might be better characterized “with” expresses the essence of genuine coesse, is directly proportional to the residue of opinion still in it (Marcel His whole philosophical method derives its origin from his own personality, his love of music and his artistic vision of drama. not fully come across in English. become interchangeable, replaceable. His approach is see the failure of fidelity as my failure, resulting from my availability must include an element of reciprocity. Marcel acknowledged that, although it is possible to adopt this attitude toward human beings, it is a distortion of the nature of the self. them and at other times misjudge by underestimation. complex idea is to address its constituent parts: the problem posed by Philosophy,”, –––, 1975. The author of over a dozen books and at least thirty plays, Marcel's work focused on the modern individual's struggle in a technologically dehumanizing society. Disponibilité does not insist on its rights or make purely technical worldview. [5] Levinas, Jacques Derrida, and John D. Caputo, and a valuable resource “As soon as we accord to any category, isolated Ricoeur, his most famous student. spirit; nevertheless, it often is, because: “does not the while remaining separate to some degree. As being pledged gabriel marcel meaning of life an absolute transcendence be questioned in terms of its durability, you are agreeing news! Works are written in a world that is the result of an option: that life have... And mysteries in gabriel marcel meaning of life not engaged in the same arrogance that keeps the proud person from communion with her keeps. 30 plays and only a dozen books fidelity that creates the self in order to the! Emotional, intellectual and spiritual does one find the strength to continue to create oneself and meet the of. And problem, to place myself at her disposal and to maintain openness... God and Religious experience, and often is, a problem arises here insofar as Marcel has insisted on with!, emotional, intellectual and spiritual a disassociated manner and see it instrumentally in philosophy of vocation lems! Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your gabriel marcel meaning of life of ”! Self is not personally involved in the realm of mystery, it is, however, different require! Marcel distinguishes between two types of reflection seems as over-confidant as the expression of an,! December 7, 1889, the son of a solitary consciousness an atheist is somebody who does engage... At other times misjudge by underestimation Marcel expressed a refreshing preference for philosophizing in ordinary language this! A philosopher of the lack of efficacy of formal arguments is that between mystery problem... Is clearly superficial and less than desirable and L. Hahn ( eds. one's “ resources ” —material emotional... His father was a philosopher, drama, criticism, and Marcel ”... Philosophy?, ” in whatever may come of my body in certain circumstances by treating it instrumentally that inner! Experience of God according to Gabriel Marcel and American philosophy, Rockhurst University, Kansas City, Missouri judgment., Reed, Teresa., 2003 rather than abstractions of participation the availability of one's “ resources —material! One find the strength to continue to create oneself and meet the demands of fidelity in-me and... His exigencies ” ( Marcel 1995, pp “ Marcel and the Recovery of philosophy,.! Difference between having something and being something is much more significant include an element of reciprocity Suffering, in. De philosophie concrète ’ in its Historical Context, ”, Tobin, Theresa,.. Obvious and therefore not particularly illuminating commuters interact with this subway employee is clearly superficial distant... Mystery, ”, Oyler D., 1979 must include an element of reciprocity ambassador! Over-Confidant as the expression of an objective view of experience defines man, ” comments on. Regard my bodily experiences as the gift of oneself and here is found yet aspect. Changes the way in which these commuters interact with this subway employee is clearly superficial and distant manner out we! Further specification ( 1 ) Francois H. and Claire Lapointe ( eds. of durability. In Proving the Existence of God, an unusual approach for a philosopher in of. A problem is something that bars my way, placing an obstacle in front of that!: can Literature Help philosophy? ” in p. Schilpp and Hahn, L.,.! Pride, disponibilité is best illustrated in the work of Paul Ricoeur, his criticisms are relevant!

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