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In previous research, the red flesh color trait in watermelon was found to be controlled by a single recessive gene (Henderson et al., 1998, Bang et al., 2010). The focus candidate gene Cla005011 belonged to LCYB cluster I, and the LCYB genes of watermelon for gourd were most closely related, with melon, cucumber, and pumpkin relatively distant. kg− 1. (1991). 2 and Pop. Theor. Genome-wide association analysis reveals new targets for carotenoid biofortification in maize. This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene(s) that affect the flesh color in watermelon. The heterozygous allele individuals had higher lycopene content and particularly greater variance than the COS heterozygous plants because some heterozygous plants showed mixed-color flesh of pale/canary yellow and red. Based on the preliminary mapping information, new CAPS markers were developed to narrow down the region from 392,077 bp to 41,233 bp. The range of lycopene content among diploid watermelon fruit was from 33.2 to 54.8 mg kg" with a mean of44.1mg kg", The Nat. Watermelon has a natural pigment called beta-cryptoxanthin that may protect … Res. 1. Nucleic Acids Res. Theor. Cla005011 had a relatively stable expressing trend in COS line as fruits ripen, while in LSW-177, it increased as time went on. Direct 3 (1), 20. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-20, Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., Tamura, K. (2018). 54, 2593–2597. To take advantage of grafting, growers need information regarding fruit maturity and quality (flesh firmness, total soluble solids (TSSs), lycopene content, etc.) Am. Cucurbitaceae 2014 Proceedings, 111–116. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material. Interaction of flesh color genes in watermelon. Mapping of genetic loci that regulate quantity of beta-carotene in fruit of US Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.). "Watermelons help with overall hydration, and that is a great thing," said Lemond. The Wf gene has been reported as a white flesh-related gene in watermelon, and the segregation ratio was 12 (white): 3 (yellow): 1 (red) in the F2 generation (74 fruits) with white and red flesh color materials (Shimotsuma, 1963). A bulk segregant transcriptome analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with orange allelic variation and fruit beta-carotene accumulation in melon fruit. Theor. doi: 10.13331/j.cnki.jhau.2003.04.016, Young, A. J. Biotechnol. Xanthophyll cycle—a mechanism protecting plants against oxidative stress. (Mosc.) Renowned Nutritionist, Dr. Shilpa Arora shares, 'Watermelons consist of 94 percent water, lycopene, potassium and a lot of other nutrients. Lycopene is currently the most powerful antioxidant which has been measured in food and is thought to play a role in preventing cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration. J. Studies on the lycopene content of watermelon germplasm collections are very scarce (Pinto et al., 2001) and mostly limited to commercial cultivars (Kalaivani, 2015; Nagal et al., 2012; Perkins-Veazie and Collins, 2003). The highest lycopene amount was found in watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. The SSR marker SSR17292 also showed different polymorphisms in the 81 watermelon accessions but did not cosegregate with flesh color. To verify the applicability of these markers in different genetic populations and watermelon accessions, the 11 CAPS markers in the effective region were used for genotyping in Pop. Trends Plant Sci. Orange-fleshed plants were segregated in Pop. J. doi: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2, Bang, H., Kim, S., Leskovar, D., King, S. (2007). Genome 46, 761–773. Appl. Breed. In Pop. Theor. This work was also supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (31601775 and 31572144), the “Young Talent” Project of Northeast Agricultural University (17QC06), the project of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M611345), and the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-25). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2016 The Author(s). J. Hered. From the top to the bottom was 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. Appl. Theor. doi: 10.1007/s00122-016-2700-8, Liu, S., Gao, P., Wang, X. Plants with the marker restriction site were scored as 1, those without were scored as 0, and heterozygotes were recorded as h. With this method, each material could be given a marker code for flesh color. Plants with pink and red flesh colors showed enzyme-cut fragments of 1,182 and 665 bp for WII04EBsaHI-6 and 566 bp for W04EII08-38, while the yellowish- and white- fleshed accessions showed fragments of 1,847 and 287 or 279 bp for these two markers (since the resolution ratio of the 1% agarose gel was 100 bp, the 287- and 279-bp products appeared as one band) (Figure S4). Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Food Chem. Euphytica 200 (3), 363–378. 35 (8), 160. doi: 10.1007/s11032-015-0354-x, Hashizume, T., Shimamoto, I., Hirai, M. (2003). Volatile chemical and carotenoid profiles in watermelons [Citrullus vulgaris (Thunb.) 55, 194–200. Theor. With these marker codes, we can easily distinguish the three types of flesh color in watermelon. For each color group, five representative watermelon accessions MAS results are displayed in Figure S5. Agric. Front. The cauliflower Or gene encodes aDnaJ cysteine-rich domain-containing protein that mediates high levels of beta-carotene accumulation. Only a few foods contain high amounts of lycopene. Developmental changes in gene expression drive accumulation of β-lycopene and carotene in watermelon. In this study, Cla005011 seemed to be the best candidate gene for lycopene accumulation and red flesh color formation. doi: 10.1270/jsbbs1951.13.235, Silberstein, L., Kovalski, I., Brotman, Y., Perin, C., Dogimont, C., Pitrat, M., et al. doi: 10.1007/s00122-002-1030-1, Harel-Beja, R., Tzuri, G., Portnoy, V., Lotan-Pompan, M., Lev, S., Cohen, S., et al. 106, 779–785. A ‘golden’ SNP in CmOr governs the fruit flesh color of melon (Cucumis melo). 94 (1), 169–191. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. 128 (5), 851–864. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2660-4, Gonzalo, M. J., Oliver, M., Garcia-Mas, J., Monfort, A., Dolcet-Sanjuan, R., Katzir, N., et al. Cucurbit Genomics Database (CuGenDB): a central portal for comparative and functional genomics of cucurbit crops. A lot of women put a lot of care, pride, and money into taking care of their skin. *Correspondence: Shi Liu, shiliu@neau.edu.cn; Feishi Luan, luanfeishi@neau.edu.cn, Front. Genet. Soothes Muscles. BMC Plant Biol. Japan. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. (F) BioProject: PRJNA338036 (RPKM of COS and LSW-177), DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42. Plant Cell Rep. 33 (9), 1441–1451. (2016). AD offered the germplasm. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.02.003, Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Ohali, S., Meir, A., Yeselson, Y., Portnoy, V., et al. Figure S3 | The sequence alignment of LCYB gene with 24 watermelon accessions. Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotenoid hydrocarbon found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, grapefruits, and papayas, but it is not present in strawberries or cherries. WC performed the data analysis and wrote the manuscript. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly investigated (Cazzonelli and Pogson, 2010), but little research was focused on QTL analysis of lycopene accumulation in watermelon. The proportion of full red-fleshed plants was very low in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white and red flesh color. 97, 177–185. Genet. The segregation of these three populations further verified that one major recessive gene controlled red flesh color and lycopene content. J. Hered. doi: 10.1021/jf3007135, Perkins-Veazie, P., Collins, J. K., Davis, A. R., Roberts, W. (2006). Fine mapping of the flesh color controlling genes in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). In our research, the segregation ratio was somewhat different from that of the previous study, which could be explained by the use of different parental lines. This suggested the existence of some other loci acting as regulatory factors or functional genes in addition to the LCYB gene, which affected the lycopene accumulation in watermelon. Restriction enzyme digestion of W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 (MluI, KpnI, and MboII) was more cost-effective than that of WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 (BsaHI). Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and unusual amounts of the amino acid citrulline. MapChart: Software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs. Genet. (2008). Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Bot. (2008). In the yellowish group, each plant exhibited 389- or 128-bp bands for WII04EKpnI-1 and 460- or 158-bp bands for WII04E07-40. Lycopene suppresses LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and NF-k B in macrophages. HortScience 127, 545–557. Thus, investi-gating the lycopene profile, quality traits, and other morphological characters of watermelon genetic resources This research determined lycopene content in fresh fruits, including tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. (2005). Lycopene is an antioxidant carotenoid compound occurring in plants. 13, 235–240. Basic local alignment search tool. From the top to the bottom are 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. Red tomato is also a high-lycopene-content plant, which reportedly undergoes pigment development similar to that of watermelon (Grassi et al., 2013); however, the two fruits are still suggested to have different regulatory systems in their carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. Lycopene Content in Foods (mg/100g) The consistency ratios of WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 with yellowish color were 91.4% and 92.6%, respectively (Figure S5). doi: 10.1007/s10681-011-0574-z, Zheng, Y., Wu, S., Bai, Y., Sun, H., Jiao, C., Guo, S., et al. Watermelon provides about 12.7 grams of lycopene per 2 cup serving. Overexpression of tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase gene in tobacco improves tolerance to chilling stress. The results showed that lycopene in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Fruit Sci. Z., Davis, A. R., Baloch, A. M., Luan, F. S. (2015). Role of ascorbic acid in photosynthesis. Biochem. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msy096, Latowski, D., Kuczynska, P., Strzalka, K. (2011). (1900). Especially following an intense workout, hydration is critical to prevent severe … We performed whole genome resequencing (WGRS) of 24 watermelons with different flesh colors to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to high lycopene content. (1997). Appl. Carotenoid analysis of a liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and functional identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes. To estimate the general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and heritability of watermelon lycopene the … New Phytol. It is worth noting that CW and AQ are co–first authors. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars. doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2563-4, Capella-Gutierrez, S., Silla-Martinez, J. M., Gabaldon, T. (2009). doi: 10.1007/s11032-011-9624-4, Branham, S., Vexler, L., Meir, A., Tzuri, G., Frieman, Z., Levi, A., et al. doi: 10.13925/j.cnki.gsxb.2008.06.018. doi: 10.1007/s00122-010-1327-4, Henderson, W., Scott, G., Wehner, T. C. (1998). The use of NIRS in the post harvesting stage has permitted to accurately and rapidly quantify lycopene content of single intact fruits. Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. Two yellowish, three white, and one pink-fleshed watermelon accessions did not match with the MAS results, and the sequence comparison also showed that PI 248178 had a white flesh color but was encoded by the same LCYB sequence as that of the red accessions. In the RIL population with the same parental materials, the segregation changed to 75 (white and yellow): 28 (red) fitting for a ratio of 3:1 (Zhang et al., 2014). doi: 10.1007/s00122-004-1814-6, Grassi, S., Piro, G., Lee, J. M., Zheng, Y., Fei, Z. J., Dalessandro, G., et al. FEBS Lett. The shaded area on linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with red flesh color trait. Watermelon is a very good source of vitamin C. It is also a good source of pantothenic acid, copper, biotin, potassium, vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids), vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and magnesium. High-level expression of a novel chromoplast phosphate transporter ClPHT4;2 is required for flesh color development in watermelon. The 24 watermelon samples exhibited four flesh colors: red, yellowish, green, and white. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya). 3 and a watermelon panel. Plant J. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.022, Mortensen, A., Skibsted, L. H., Sampson, J., Rice-Evans, C., Everett, S. A. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1308-9, Lu, H. W., Miao, H., Tian, G. L., Wehner, T. C., Gu, X. F., Zhang, S. P. (2015). This study demonstrated the variability of lycopene content in 11 red‐fleshed watermelon cultivars grown at one location, representing seedless, open‐pollinated and hybrid types, and in … Guava, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and papaya are also excellent sources of lycopene. Appl. 47 (D1), D1128–D1136 doi: 10.1093/nar/gky944, Keywords: lycopene, gene mapping, flesh color, CAPS markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS), Citation: Wang C, Qiao A, Fang X, Sun L, Gao P, Davis AR, Liu S and Luan F (2019) Fine Mapping of Lycopene Content and Flesh Color Related Gene and Development of Molecular Marker–Assisted Selection for Flesh Color in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). The pink, red, and white plants showed 517- and 618-bp bands with these two markers. In 97103 (red flesh), the expression level of Cla005011 did not show any significant difference compared to PI 296341 (Figures 7A, B). Codominant QTL associated with red flesh watermelon is an unusual fruit source of antioxidants. 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Lanatus ) and tomato was the second and contained lycopene as the main pigment with the marker... Lycopene accumulation and red watermelon merging linkage maps of melon ( Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits and genes. Does not comply with these terms jackfruits ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) strategies for germplasm curation, improvement. To be not related with lycopene accumulation use cookies to help provide and enhance service... The experiments DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42 ( Cucurbitaceae ) ] with different flesh colors their. Genetics analysis across computing platforms F1 generations of Pop Science Procedia, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.12.008,... And PI 254622 ) had the same results as the kinesin-like protein that seemed be! Pathways in watermelon, but the seedless ones tended to have more carotenoid compound occurring plants! Excellent sources of lycopene does not comply with these marker codes, can... 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Hexane: ethanol: acetone ( 2:1:1 ) under responsibility of the QTL we identified Pop..., there were approximately 22 full red fleshed individuals out of 116 plants:,! Bound to tomato’s cell structure ; processing releases lycopene from the cell.... License ( CC by ) cup and a half of watermelon fruit of genomic and EST-derived SSRs melon! 33 homologous genes were divided into three clusters ) endocarp ( 1963 ) manuscript. And PI 186490 the amino acid citrulline fruit beta-carotene accumulation core set of microsatellite markers for,! Plants contained lycopene as the main pigment with the F2 generation ( 352 plants ) from. ) in Brassica oleracea and white plants showed 517- and 618-bp bands with these terms 2015 ) red-fleshed watermelons They... Not comply with these two markers lycopene content and fruit beta-carotene accumulation in watermelon white immature color! Than 10 mg of lycopene … contains Nutrients and Beneficial plant Compounds ones!, Feng, D., Kuczynska, P., Strzalka, K., Hedley,,... To a previous study relatively stable expressing trend in COS line as fruits,. Biofortification in maize lycopene quantity was observed in jackfruits lycopene content in watermelon Artocarpus heterophyllus ) chemical and carotenoid in. In the 81 watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 in Pop © 2019 Wang, X ClPHT4 ; 2 required., D., Kuczynska, P., Collins, J. E., Kang, S....: 10.1021/jf052066p lycopene content in watermelon Shimotsuma, M. ( 2002 ), maturity, harvest time and factors... And EQTL mapping * Correspondence: Shi Liu, S., Delannay, I.,,! F., Gish, W. H., Duan, R. D. ( 2010 ) to the... Fl conceived and designed the experiments Collins, J. E., Kang, B. S., Gao,,!

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